Use suggested professional and library sources and tools.
Who wrote it or made it?
Filter for peer-reviewed journal articles.
Mostly use recent sources.
Ultimately, you have to see for yourself if your source used a credible methodology and whether it agrees with similar studies.
Copying full reference and in-text example from ASU Writing Center's APA format page
Ref Bourque, J., Baker, T. E., Dagher, A., Evans, A. C., Garavan, H., Leyton, M., & Conrod, P. J. (2016). Effects of delaying binge drinking on adolescent brain development: A longitudinal neuroimaging study. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1148-3
Cit (Bourque et al., 2016, p. xx)
and here's an example of a partial paragraph. Let's look at how it's constructed, with in-text citations.
Two articles. The first is an original or primary research study. Note that it looks at 108 children. The second is different. It's a review article. It's still a research article, but it's secondary. It looks at about 46 original research studies and critically summarizes their results.
AND You use AND by default. Intersection of sets. Concussion prevention uses AND function and only gives you results (articles, webpages, etc) that have both words.
OR OR allows you to search synonyms or related (or even unrelated) concepts at the same time. Ankle OR knee OR foot allows you to search all these concepts at one time. For most complex searches use parentheses, (Ankle OR knee OR foot). Carolina OR tennessee OR virginia OR appalach*. Teenager OR adolescent OR youth. Elderly OR aged OR older OR senior. The asterisk searches variations with the same beginning letters.
NOT You probably will not use NOT often. Get rid of unwanted results, if you can identify a word that will work. (Leg OR knee OR thigh) NOT ankle. (I often use Nurs* NOT "nursing homes.")
Quotation marks are useful, but strictly speaking, are not Boolean.
Helps with creating an answerable, useful question. Helps with choice of search words.
Problem or population -- stroke victims with swallowing disorders, 50-60 years old
Intervention -- possible new treatment (or assessment method)
Comparison (or placebo) -- what's being used up to now.
Outcome -- return to eating solids unassisted.
Speech Sound Disorders: Preschool or School-Age
Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Adult Apraxia of Speech
Stuttering: Preschool or School-Age
Voice Disorders: Childhood or Adult
Preschool Language Disorders
School-age Language Disorders
Preschool or School-age Language Disorders: Bilingual Children
Literacy/Written Language Disorder: Dyslexia
Literacy/Written Language Disorder: Non-specific
Hearing Disorders: Children
Hearing Disorders: Adults
Autism: Social Aspects of Communication: Preschool or School-Age
Autism: Social Aspects of Communication: Adult
Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Preschool or School-Age
Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Adult
Cognitive Aspects of Communication: Adult
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