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Communication Sciences and Disorders

Outline January 2022

  • Getting help: library, ASHA!
  • Examples
  • APA
  • Finding and recognizing credible sources
  • 3 variables
    • Words and phrases -- PICO, no excess words     (Quick look at topics)
    • Which databases? example: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
    • What else?  Citation links, backward and forward. Authors. Methods and data sources.  Hand search
  • Getting full text
  • Getting organized and writing. Also see Writing Center, including their APA style pages. Track your results.

Finding credible sources

Use suggested professional and library sources and tools.

Who wrote it or made it?

Filter for peer-reviewed journal articles.

Mostly use recent sources.

Ultimately, you have to see for yourself if your source used a credible methodology and whether it agrees with similar studies.

Finding Articles -- Databases for CSD

APA Examples -- Citations, text -- Is this APA?

Copying full reference and in-text example from ASU Writing Center's APA format page

Ref      Bourque, J., Baker, T. E., Dagher, A., Evans, A. C., Garavan, H., Leyton, M., & Conrod, P. J. (2016). Effects of delaying binge drinking on adolescent brain development: A longitudinal neuroimaging study. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 1-9.

Cit        (Bourque et al., 2016, p. xx)



and here's an example of a partial paragraph.  Let's look at how it's constructed, with in-text citations.

Snippet of text of Ebert 2021, example of APA style

Examples -- 2 articles

Two articles.  The first is an original or primary research study.  Note that it looks at 108 children.  The second is different.  It's a review article.  It's still a research article, but it's secondary.  It looks at about 46 original research studies and critically summarizes their results.

Nuances -- Boolean, PICO

Boolean : 

AND  You use AND by default.  Intersection of sets.  Concussion prevention uses AND function and only gives you results (articles, webpages, etc) that have both words.

OR   OR allows you to search synonyms or related (or even unrelated) concepts at the same time.  Ankle OR knee OR foot allows you to search all these concepts at one time.  For most complex searches use parentheses, (Ankle OR knee OR foot).  Carolina OR tennessee OR virginia OR appalach*.  Teenager OR adolescent OR youth.  Elderly OR aged OR older OR senior.  The asterisk searches variations with the same beginning letters.

NOT   You probably will not use NOT often.  Get rid of unwanted results, if you can identify a word that will work.  (Leg OR knee OR thigh) NOT ankle.  (I often use Nurs* NOT "nursing homes.")

Quotation marks are useful, but strictly speaking, are not Boolean.


Helps with creating an answerable, useful question.  Helps with choice of search words.

Problem or population  -- stroke victims with swallowing disorders, 50-60 years old

Intervention -- possible new treatment (or assessment method)

Comparison (or placebo) -- what's being used up to now.

Outcome -- return to eating solids unassisted.

Research topics

Speech Sound Disorders: Preschool or School-Age


Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Adult Apraxia of Speech

Stuttering: Preschool or School-Age

Stuttering: Adult

Voice Disorders:  Childhood or Adult

Preschool Language Disorders

School-age Language Disorders

Preschool or School-age Language Disorders: Bilingual Children

Literacy/Written Language Disorder: Dyslexia

Literacy/Written Language Disorder: Non-specific


Hearing Disorders: Children

Hearing Disorders: Adults

Dysphagia: Infants

Dysphagia: Adults

TBI: School-Age

TBI: Adult

Autism: Social Aspects of Communication: Preschool or School-Age

Autism: Social Aspects of Communication: Adult

Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Preschool or School-Age

Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Adult

Cognitive Aspects of Communication: Adult