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Citation Guidelines: MLA

AppState University Writing Center

AppState's University Writing Center has assembled a comprehensive set of MLA resources and is the recommended place to start if you need help.

In-text or Parenthetical Citations

In the text of your paper, you acknowledge the sources you used with a brief parenthetical citation that refers to an alphabetical Works Cited list at the end of the paper. The brief citation should include just enough information for a reader to find the full citation in the list, as well as a page number, if appropriate. For example, if you are citing a fact found on page 359 of the book Up from History by Robert J. Norrell, the brief citation might be (Norrell 359); it might be (Norrell Up 359) if your list contains two different books by Norrell.

MLA Style - Electronic Sources

Citation examples for types of electronic sources
Electronic Source Type Example MLA edition

Online book

Ambler, Tim, and Morgen Witzel. Doing Business in China: Getting Ready for the Asian Century. Routledge, 2000. ProQuest ebrary. Accessed 24 Aug. 2016.


Magazine article from an Online Database

Kluger, Jeffrey. “Light Elements: Dr. Sigmund Doolittle.” Discover, vol. 17, no. 2, Feb. 1996, pp. 84-87. ProQuest Central. Accessed 10 Aug. 2016.


Journal article from an Online Database

Thompson, Michael D., and Robert O. Riggs. “Institutional Expenditure Patterns and the Facilitation of Mission.” Community College Review, vol. 27, no. 4, Spring 2000, pp. 1-15. Academic Search Complete. Accessed 12 Feb. 2009.


Newspaper article from an Online Database

Hook, Janet. "Election 2016: Candidate Takes New Tack on Immigrants." Wall Street Journal, Eastern Edition, 24 August 2016, p. A4. ProQuest Newstream. Accessed 26 August 2016.

Encyclopedia  article or work in anthology from a subscription service

Howard, Lillie. “Zora Neale Hurston.” Dictionary of Literary Biography: Afro-American Writers from the Harlem Renaissance to 1940, edited by Trudier Harris, Gale, 1987. Literature Resource Center. 26 January 2009.


Bio. A&E Television Networks, Accessed 10 Apr. 2009.

Article on website

Musinsky, Gerald. “Animal Spirits.” Encyclopedia Mythica, Accessed 18 Mar. 2009.


MLA Style - Print Sources


Citation examples for books
Book Type Example MLA edition

One author

Fairbanks, Carol. Prairie Women: Images in American and Canadian Fiction. Yale UP, 1986.


Two authors

Davidson, William R. and Daniel J. Sweeney. Retailing Management.  6th ed., Wiley, 1988.


Three or more authors

Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria Beyond Freud. U of California P, 1993.


Anonymous book

New York Public Library American History Desk Reference. Macmillan, 1997.

Anthology or compilation

Feldman, Paula R., editor. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Work in an anthology

Shutte, Nancy, and Laura Tangley. "Problem Drinkers Can Learn Moderation." Addiction: Opposing Viewpoints. Edited by Jennifer A. Hurley. Greenhaven, 2000, pp. 93-100.



Citation examples for articles
Article Type Examples Notes MLA edition

Magazine articles

Mathews, Jay. "How to Build a Better High School." Newsweek, 16 May 2005, pp. 52-57. 

Wright, Karen. "The First Earthlings." Discover, Mar. 2003, pp. 24-25.

Abbreviate all months except May, June and July.

The first article example is from a weekly magazine; the second is from a monthly magazine.


Journal article

Cnattingius, Sven, et al. "Pregnancy Characteristics and Maternal Risk of Breast Cancer." JAMA, vol. 294, no.19, 2005, pp. 2474-2480. 

Albada, Kelly Fudge. "The Public and Private Dialogue about the American Family on Television." Journal of Communication, vol. 50, no. 4, 2000, pp. 79-110.

There is no distinction made between journals with continuous paging and those with issues paged separately. 8th

Encyclopedia article

"Civil Disobedience." The Encyclopedia Americana. 2004 ed. Print.

Mohanty, Jitendra N. "Indian Philosophy." The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed., 1998.

Do not cite the editor of the encyclopedia. 8th

Newspaper article 

Harris, Nicole. “Airports in the Throes of Change.” Wall Street Journal, 27 Mar. 2002, p. B1+. 

“Elections Could Change the Game for Contractors.” Washington Post, 15 Sep. 2008, p. D2.


MLA Style - Non-Print Sources

Citation examples for non-print sources

Nonprint Source Type Example MLA edition

Personal Interview

Prince, Linda. Personal interview. 24 Dec. 2005.



@Belk Library. "Welcome (and welcome back) students! The library is ready to make your fall semester studious and productive!" Twitter, 16 Aug. 2016, 9:47 a.m.,


YouTube Video

McGonigal, Jane. "Gaming and Productivity." YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,



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