The ASU Music Library has a good selection of materials about South America. Searching by individual country is best, although there are a few items dealing with the continent's music as a whole: search "music south america" and "folk music south america." For some countries (marked with an asterisk* in the list and in green on the map), we have enough materials for a more in-depth study. Other listed countries (yellow on the map) have at least one recording or text.
The best general reference book on South American music is South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean , volume two from the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (Music Reference ML 100 .G16 1998 v.2). Pages 241-546 deal specifically with the music of South America. A CD is included with the volume.
South American Peoples: Instruments: Musical Genres: